River fish of note include trout , Atlantic salmon , pikes , shades and lampreys. Food processing meat, vegetables Festival du chant de marin , sea songs festival in Paimpol.
Le Cârouj a refermé ses portes : RV au Printemps !
Museums in Saint-Malo , Lorient and Douarnenez are dedicated to ships and maritime traditions and history. However, local innovations permitted some changes and the birth of a particular style. Welsh literary sources assert that Conan came to Armorica on the orders of the Roman usurper Magnus Maximus , [a] who sent some of his British troops to Gaul to enforce his claims and settled them in Armorica. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Turn off more accessible mode.
Nantes and its département , Loire-Atlantique , raised concerns because they were off-centered, more integrated with the Loire Valley than with the Breton peninsula.
The French government and local politicians also feared that Nantes , because of its population and its former Breton capital status, would have maintained a harmful competition with Rennes to get the regional institutions and investments. Several drafts for French regions had been proposed since the s, and the definitive regions were drawn in In , the regions received their present competencies, with an elected regional council. Since then, the region of Brittany has had its own council and administrative bodies.
When the region of Brittany was created, several local politicians opposed the exclusion of Loire-Atlantique , and the question still remains. The obstacles to reunification are the same as in Moreover, the Pays de la Loire region could not exist without Loire-Atlantique , because it would lose its political and economic capital. Without Loire-Atlantique, the other départements would not form an efficient region any more, and would have to integrate neighbouring regions such as the Centre-Val de Loire and Poitou-Charentes.
However, several institutions have backed the reunification, such as the regional council of Brittany since and the Loire-Atlantique council since Some politicians like Jean-Marc Ayrault , the French prime minister and former mayor of Nantes , favour instead the creation of a "Greater West region", which would encompass Brittany and the Pays de la Loire region.
Until the end of the 20th century, Brittany had been characterised by a strong Catholic and conservative influence. However, some areas such as the industrial region around Saint-Nazaire and Lorient and the surroundings of Tréguier are traditional Socialist and Communist strongholds. Left-wing parties, mainly the Socialist party and the Greens , have become more and more powerful after the s and they have formed a majority in the Regional Council of Brittany since The Loire-Atlantique and Ille-et-Vilaine councils have also been held by the left since The Socialist party has held the Côtes-d'Armor council since , and the Finistère council since On its side, Morbihan remains a right-wing stronghold.
The local parties have a very small audience, except the Union Démocratique Bretonne which has seats at the Regional Council and in other local assemblies. It advocates more autonomy for the region and its positions are very close to the Socialist parties. It also has a strong ecological orientation.
The audience of far-right parties is lower in Brittany than in the rest of France. Brittany is the largest French peninsula. It is bordered to the north by the English Channel , to the south by the Bay of Biscay and the waters located between the western coast and Ushant island form the Iroise Sea.
The Breton coast is very indented, with many cliffs, rias and capes. The Gulf of Morbihan is a vast natural harbour with some forty islands that is almost a closed sea. In total, around islands lie off the mainland; the largest being Belle Île , in the south. The region is generally hilly because it corresponds to the western end of the Armorican massif , a very old range that also extends in Normandy and the Pays de la Loire region.
Because of this continuity, the Breton border with the rest of France is not marked by any strong geographical landmark, apart from the river Couesnon , which separates Brittany from Normandy.
The Armorican massif reaches its maximal elevation outside of Brittany, in neighbouring Mayenne , at m, and slopes towards the west before straightening on its western extremity, with the Montagnes Noires and the Monts d'Arrée. It is closely followed by several neighbouring hills culminating at around m above sea level. Coastal areas are usually named Armor or Arvor "by the sea" in Breton , and the inland is called Argoat "by the forest".
The best soils were primitively covered by large forests which had been progressively replaced by bocage during the Middle Ages. The Breton bocage, with its small fields enclosed by thick hedgerows, has almost disappeared since the s to fit the modern agricultural needs and methods, particularly mechanisation.
Several forests still exist, such as the Paimpont forest , sometimes said to be the Arthurian Brocéliande. The poor and rocky areas are covered by large heathland and moorlands , and Brittany has several marshes , like the Brière , included in a regional natural park.
Another regional park encompasses the Monts d'Arrée and the Iroise seacoast. The Breton peninsula appeared during the Cadomian Orogeny , which formed its northern coastline, between Guingamp and Fougères.
The southern part emerged during the Hercynian orogeny. At the same time, an intense volcanic activity left large quantities of granite.
Between the Cadomian and Hercynian periods, the region was submerged several times and the sea left fossils and sedimentary rocks , mostly schist and sandstone. Because of the absence of limestone , soils in Brittany are usually acid. The Armorican massif straightened and flattened several times during the formation of the Pyrenees and the Alps. Changes in sea levels and climate led to a strong erosion and to the formation of more sedimentary rocks. Metamorphism is responsible for the distinctive local blue schist and for the rich subsoil of the Groix island , which comprises glaucophane and epidote.
During the Quaternary glaciations, Brittany was covered by loess and rivers started to fill the valleys with alluvial deposits. The valleys themselves were a result of a strong tectonic activity between the African and the Eurasian plate. The present Breton landscape did not acquired its final shape before one million years ago.
The Breton subsoil is characterised by a huge amount of fractures that form a large aquifer containing several millions square meters of water. Brittany lies within the north temperate zone. It has a changeable, maritime climate , similar to Cornwall. Rainfall occurs regularly but sunny, cloudless days are also common.
The temperature difference between summer and winter is about fifteen degrees, but it varies depending on the proximity of the sea. The weather is generally milder on the seacoast than inland but rainfall occurs with the same intensity on both. The Monts d'Arrée , despite their low elevation, have much more rainfall than the rest of the region.
The south coast, between Lorient and Pornic , enjoys more than 2, hours of sunshine per year. Brittany's wildlife is typical of France with several distinctions. On one hand, the region, due to its long coastline, has a rich oceanic fauna, and some birds cannot be seen in other French regions. On the other hand, the species found in the inland are usually common for France, and because Brittany is a peninsula, the number of species is lower in its western extremity than in the eastern part.
A variety of seabirds can be seen close to the seaside, which is home to colonies of cormorants , gulls , razorbills , northern gannets , common murres and Atlantic puffins. Most of these birds breed on isolated islands and rocks and thus are hard to observe.
The inland is home to common European species: Like Cornwall , Wales and Ireland, the waters of Brittany attract marine animals including basking sharks , grey seals , leatherback turtles , dolphins, porpoises , jellyfish , crabs and lobsters. Bass is common along the coast, small-spotted catsharks live on the continental shelf , rattails and anglerfish populate the deep waters.
River fish of note include trout , Atlantic salmon , pikes , shades and lampreys. The Breton rivers are also home to beavers and otters and to some invasive American species, such as the coypu which destroys the ecosystem and accelerated the extinction of the European mink. Among the invertebrates, Brittany is notably home to the escargot de Quimper , the freshwater pearl mussel and the white-clawed crayfish.
Today, mammals of note include roe deer , wild boar , foxes, hares and several species of bat. Brittany is widely known for the Breton horse , a local breed of draft horse , and for the Brittany gun dog.
The region also has its own breeds of cattle, some of which are on the brink of extinction: The Breton forests, dunes, moorlands and marshes are home to several iconic plants, such as endemic cistus , aster and linaria varieties, the horseshoe vetch and the lotus maritimus.
Brittany has the same education system as the rest of France. As in other French regions, formal education before the 19th century was the preserve of the elite. Before , Brittany did not have a university, and Breton students had to go to Angers , Poitiers or Caen. All the traditional disciplines were taught there: During the 17th century, it had around 1, students. It declined during the 18th century, mostly because Nantes was flourishing with the Atlantic slave trade and paid no attention to its cultural institutions.
A mayor eventually asked the university to be relocated to Rennes , more devoted to culture and science, and the faculties progressively moved there after Napoleon reorganised the French education system in He created new universities and invented two secondary education institutions: A new University of Rennes was progressively recreated during the 19th century.
In the meantime, several laws were promoted to open schools, notably for girls. In , Jules Ferry succeeded in passing a law which made primary education in France free, non-clerical laïque and mandatory. Thus, free schools were opened in almost every villages of Brittany.
Jules Ferry also promoted education policies establishing French language as the language of the Republic, and mandatory education was a mean to eradicate regional languages and dialects. In Brittany, it was forbidden for the pupils to speak Breton or Gallo , and the two were strongly depreciated.
Humiliating practices aimed at stamping out the Breton language and culture prevailed in state schools until the late s. They have taught a few thousand young people from elementary school to high school, and they have gained more and more fame owing to their high level of results in school exams.
Besides, Brittany, with the neighbouring Pays de la Loire region, remains a stronghold for Catholic private education with around 1, schools.
During the 20th century, tertiary education was developed with the creation of the École centrale de Nantes in , the University of Nantes in , the ESC Bretagne Brest in , the University of Western Brittany in and the University of Southern Brittany in Brittany, apart from some areas such as Lorient , Nantes and Saint-Nazaire , has never been heavily industrialised.
Today, fishing and agriculture remain important activities. Brittany has more than 40, agricultural exploitations, mostly oriented towards cattle, pig and poultry breeding, and cereals and vegetables production.
The number of exploitations tends to diminish, but as a result, they are merged into very large estates. Brittany is the first producer in France for vegetables green beans , onions, artichokes , potatoes, tomatoes Cereals are mostly grown for cattle feeding. Wine, especially muscadet , is made in a small region south of Nantes. Brittany is the first region in France for fishing.
The activity employs around 9, people, and more than 60 firms work in fish and seafood processing. Although relatively new, the Breton industry has been constantly growing since Food processing meat, vegetables Brittany is the second French region for telecommunication and the fifth for electronics, two activities mainly developed in Rennes , Lannion and Brest.
Tourism is particularly important for the seacoast and Brittany is one of the most visited regions in France. However, these results remain under the French national rate 9.
In , Region Brittany 's gross domestic product reached 82 billion euros. It was the seventh richest region in France and it produced 4. The Breton GDP per capita was around 25, euros in In , the population in Region Brittany was estimated to 3,, and Loire-Atlantique had around 1,, inhabitants, thus historical Brittany's population can be estimated at 4,,, the highest in its history. The region around Rennes and the south are the more attractive areas, whereas the population is declining in the centre and in the westernmost parts.
While most of the metropolitan areas are growing, the cities themselves tend to stagnate or regress, such as for Brest , Lorient , Saint-Brieuc and Saint-Malo. In , Ille-et-Vilaine had , inhabitants, it was followed by Morbihan , , inhabitants, Finistère , inhabitants, and Côtes-d'Armor , with , inhabitants. All the other communes had under 20, inhabitants. Brittany is also characterised by a great number of small towns, such as Vitré , Concarneau , Morlaix or Auray.
Loire-Atlantique has two major cities, Nantes , with , inhabitants and an urban area encompassing ,, and Saint-Nazaire , with 67, inhabitants.
Loire-Atlantique's population is more rapidly growing than Region Brittany 's and it is the 12th most populated French département. In , Brittany had around 2. Without the Loire-Atlantique's figures, the Breton population only numbered 2. Instead, Brittany has become attractive, particularly for families, young retired persons and active people over 35 years old.
Brittany does not have a strong share of foreign residents. Breton political parties do not have wide support and their electoral success is small. However, Bretons have a strong cultural identity. It also showed that Breton identity is stronger among people younger than Primary Breton identity is at its lowest among the respondents over Breton self-identification is stronger among people who vote left-wing.
It is stronger among employees than employers. French, the only official language of the French Republic, is spoken today by everybody in Brittany, and it is the mother tongue of most people. Nonetheless, French was not widely known before the 19th century, and two regional languages exist in Brittany: They are separated by a language border that has constantly moved back since the Middle Ages.
Because of their origins and practice, Breton and Gallo can be compared to Scottish Gaelic and Scots language in Scotland. Both have been recognised as "Langues de Bretagne" "languages of Brittany" by the Regional Council of Brittany since Breton is a Celtic language derived from the historical Common Brittonic language, and is most closely related to Cornish and Welsh. Since the 13th century, long before the union of Brittany and France , the main administrative language of the Duchy of Brittany had been French, which had replaced Latin.
Breton remained the language of the rural population, but since the Middle Ages the bourgeoisie , the nobility , and the higher clergy have spoken French. Government policies in the 19th and 20th centuries made education compulsory and, at the same time, forbade the use of Breton in schools to push non-French speakers into adopting the French language.
Nevertheless, until the s Breton was spoken or understood by many of the inhabitants of western Brittany. During the s, Breton schools were opened and the local authorities started to promote the language, which was on the brink of extinction because parents had stopped teaching it to their children.
The Breton language has several dialects which have no precise limits but rather form a continuum. Most of them are very similar to each other, with only some phonetic and lexical differences. The three main dialects spoken in the western end of Brittany, the ' Cornouillais , around Quimper , the Léonard , around Saint-Pol-de-Léon , and the Trégorrois , around Tréguier , are grouped into the KLT group Kerne-Leon-Treger , in opposition to the Vannetais , spoken around Vannes , which is the most differentiated Breton dialect.
Gallo is spoken on the eastern half of Brittany. It is one of the romance Langues d'oïl , but has some Celtic influences, particularly in its vocabulary. Unlike Breton, Gallo does not have a long promotion history and it is still often perceived as a poor rural dialect.
Moreover, because of its similarities with Gallo, French imposed itself more easily as the main language in Upper Brittany than in Breton speaking areas. Gallo was felt to be an incorrect way of speaking French more than a proper dialect or language. Gallo transmission from parents to children is extremely low and efforts to standardise and publish books in Gallo did not reverse the decline of the language and its lack of prestige.
Gallo is also threatened by the Breton language revival , because Breton is gaining ground in territories that were not previously part of the main Breton-speaking area, and most of all because Breton appears as the national language of Brittany, thus leaving no place for Gallo.
Gallo had never been written before the 20th century, and several writing systems were created. They are however rarely known by the population and signs in Gallo are often unreadable, even for fluent speakers. In Loire-Atlantique , where Gallo is not promoted at all by the local authorities, many people do not even know the word "Gallo" and have no idea that it has writing systems and publications.
The Gallo community is estimated at between 28,  and ,  speakers. The language is taught on a non-compulsory basis in some schools, high-schools and universities, particularly in Ille-et-Vilaine.
During the Briton emigration to Brittany, several Christian missionaries, mostly Welsh, came in the region and founded dioceses. They are known as the "Seven founder saints":. Other notable early missionaries are Gildas and the Irish saint Columbanus. In total, Brittany numbers more than " saints " only a few recognised by the Catholic Church and, since the 19th century at least, it has been known as one of the most devoutly Catholic regions in France, together with the neighbouring Pays de la Loire region.
The proportion of students attending Catholic private schools is the highest in France. His feast, the 19 May, is Brittany's national day. Many distinctive traditions and customs have also been preserved in Brittany. Among them, the " Pardons " are one of the most traditional demonstrations of popular Catholicism.
These penitential ceremonies occur in some villages in Lower Brittany on the feast day of the parish's saint. The penitents form a procession and they walk together to a shrine , a church or any sacred place. Some Pardons are reputed for their length, and they all finish by large meals and popular feasts. There is a very old pilgrimage called the Tro Breizh tour of Brittany , where the pilgrims walk around Brittany from the grave of one of the seven founder saints to another.
Nowadays, however, pilgrims complete the circuit over the course of several years. The most powerful folk figure is the Ankou or the "Reaper of Death". Sometimes a skeleton wrapped in a shroud with the Breton flat hat, sometimes described as a real human being the last dead of the year, devoted to bring the dead to Death , he makes his journeys by night carrying an upturned scythe which he throws before him to reap his harvest.
Sometimes he is on foot but mostly he travels with a cart, the Karrig an Ankou , drawn by two oxen and a lean horse. Two servants dressed in the same shroud and hat as the Ankou pile the dead into the cart, and to hear it creaking at night means you have little time left to live. As official religious statistics are forbidden in France, there are no official figures about religious practices in Brittany.
However, successive polls show that the region tends to be more and more nonreligious. Catholic religion has started to decline after the Second World War , during the urbanisation of Brittany. Brittany is home to many megalithic monuments; the words menhir and dolmen come from the Breton language.
The largest menhir alignments are the Carnac stones. Monuments from the Roman period are rare, but include a large temple in Corseul and scarce ruins of villas and city walls in Rennes and Nantes. Brittany has a large quantity of medieval buildings. They include numerous Romanesque and French Gothic churches, usually built in local sandstone and granit , castles and half-timbered houses visible in villages, towns and cities. The most impressive castles can be seen along the border with France, where stand the Château de Fougères , the Château de Vitré , the Château de Châteaubriant and the Château de Clisson.
The French Renaissance occurred when Brittany lost its independence. The Renaissance architecture is almost absent in the region, apart in Upper Brittany , close to the border with France. Major sites include the Château des ducs de Bretagne , the last permanent residence of the dukes, which displays the transition from late Gothic to Renaissance style.
The Château de Châteaubriant , a former fortress, was transformed into a vast palace in the Italian style. In Lower Brittany , the medieval style never totally disappeared. However, local innovations permitted some changes and the birth of a particular style.
Its most distinctive feature is the parish close , which displays an elaborately decorated church surrounded by an entirely walled churchyard. Many villages still have their closes, they date from the 16th and 17th centuries and sometimes include an elaborately carved calvary sculpture.
During the 17th and the 18th centuries, the main seaports and towns obtained a typical French look, with baroque and neoclassical buildings. Nantes , which was at the time the biggest French harbour, received a theatre, large avenues and quays, and Rennes was redesigned after a fire in At the same period, the wealthy ship-owners from Saint-Malo built many mansions called "Malouinières" around their town. In rural areas, Breton houses remained simple, with a single floor and a longhouse pattern.
They were built with local materials: Slates and reeds were usually used for roofing. During the 19th century, the Breton architecture was mainly characterised by the Gothic Revival and Eclecticism. Clisson , the southernmost Breton town, was rebuilt in an Italian Romantic style around The Breton lighthouses were mostly built during the 19th century. The lighthouse on the Île Vierge is, with 77 meters, the highest in Europe. At the end of the 19th century, several seaside resorts were created along the coast and villas and hotels were built in historicist , Art Nouveau , and later in the Art Deco styles.
These architectures are particularly present in Dinard , La Baule and Bénodet. Architecture from the 20th century can be seen in Saint-Nazaire , Brest and Lorient , three cities destroyed during the Second World War and rebuilt afterwards, and in the works of the Breton nationalist architects like James Bouillé and Olier Mordrel.
Until the 19th century, Catholicism had been the main inspiration for Breton artists. The region has a great number of baroque retables , made between the 17th and the 19th century.
Breton sculptors were also famous for their ship models that served as ex-votos and for their richly decorated furniture, which features naïve Breton characters and traditional patterns. The box-bed is the most famous Breton piece of furniture. The Breton style had a strong revival between and the Second World War and it was used by the Seiz Breur movement.
The Seiz Breur artists also tried to invent a modern Breton art by rejecting French standards and mixing traditional techniques with new materials. Brittany is also known for its needlework , which can be seen on its numerous headdress models, and for its faience production, which started at the beginning of the 18th century.
Quimper faience is known worldwide for its bowls and plates painted by hand, and other towns, such as Pornic , also maintain a similar tradition. The potteries usually feature naïve Breton characters in traditional clothing and daily scenes. The designs have a strong traditional Breton influence, but Orientalism and Art Deco have also been used.
Because of its distinct culture and beautiful landscapes, Brittany has inspired many French artists since the 19th century. The Pont-Aven School , which started to emerge in the s and lasted until the beginning of the 20th century, had a decisive influence on modern painting. The artists who settled in Pont-Aven wanted to break away from the Academic style of the École des Beaux-Arts and later from Impressionism when it began to decline.
Before them, Brittany had also been visited by Academic and Romantic painters like Jean Antoine Théodore de Gudin and Jules Achille Noël who were looking for dramatic seascapes and storms. Since the early s, Brittany has experienced a tremendous revival of its folk music. Numerous festivals were created, along with smaller fest-noz popular feasts. The bagado ù , bands composed of bagpipes , bombards and drums including snare , are also a modern creation, inspired by the Scottish pipe bands.
The Lann-Bihoué bagad, one of the most well-known, belongs to the French Navy. It is the only one that does not take part to the annual bagadoù competitions.
Celtic harp is also common, as are vocals and dances. The Kan ha diskan is the most common type of singing. The performers sing calls and responses while dancing. Breton dances usually imply circles, chains or couples and they are different in every region. The oldest dances seem to be the passepied and the gavotte , and the newest ones derive from the quadrille and French Renaissance dances.
In the s, several Breton artists started to use contemporary patterns to create a Breton pop music. Among them, Alan Stivell highly contributed to popularise the Celtic harp and Breton music in the world. He also used American rock and roll in his works and influenced s Breton bands such as Kornog , Gwerz and Tri Yann , who revived traditional songs and made them popular across France.
Soldat Louis is the main Breton rock band and the most famous [ according to whom? Yann Tiersen , who composed the soundtrack for Amélie , the Electro band Yelle and the avant-garde singer Brigitte Fontaine are also from Brittany.
The 19th-century composer Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray was one of the first western European composers to be influenced by what is now known as world music. Brittany is closely associated with the Matter of Britain and King Arthur. According to Wace , Brocéliande is located in Brittany and it is nowadays considered to be Paimpont forest. There, ruins of a castle surrounded by a lake are associated with the Lady of the Lake , a dolmen is said to be Merlin 's tomb and a path is presented as Morgan le Fay 's Val sans Retour.
Tristan and Iseult are also said to have lived in Brittany. Another major Breton legend is the story about Ys , a city swallowed by the ocean. Breton literature before the 19th century was mostly oral. The oral tradition entertained by medieval poets died out during the 15th century and books in Breton were very rare before At that time, local writers started to collect and publish local tales and legends and wrote original works.
Published between and the Second World War , the literary journal Gwalarn favoured a modern Breton literature and helped translating widely known novels into Breton. After the war, the journal Al Liamm pursued that mission. Breton literature in French includes 19th-century historical novels by Émile Souvestre , travel journals by Anatole Le Braz , poems and novels by Charles Le Goffic , the works of the singer-songwriter Théodore Botrel and of the maritime writer Henri Queffélec.
The Asterix comics, set during the time of Julius Caesar and written in the second half of the twentieth century, are set in Armorica, now Brittany.
The Museum of Brittany, located in Rennes , was founded in Its collections are mainly dedicated to the history of the region. Museums dedicated to Prehistory and local megaliths are located in Carnac and Penmarch , while several towns like Vannes and Nantes have a museum presenting their own history. The Museums of Fine Arts of Brest and Quimper offer similar collections, with large quantities of French painting together with the works of some Italian and Dutch artists.
Contemporary sculptures can be seen in the park around the Château de Kerguéhennec, in Bignan. Museums in Saint-Malo , Lorient and Douarnenez are dedicated to ships and maritime traditions and history. The Musée national de la Marine has a large annexe in Brest and a submarine is opened to visitors in Lorient.
In the same town, it is also possible to visit the Keroman Submarine Base built in , and the Cité de la voile Éric Tabarly , a museum dedicated to sailing. Brittany has a vibrant calendar of festivals and events. The Festival Interceltique de Lorient welcomes each year participants all the Celtic nations and their diasporas. La Folle Journée , in Nantes , is the largest classical music festival in France.
The Breton culture is highlighted during the Fête de la Bretagne , which occurs in many places around Saint-Yves's day 19 May , and during the Festival de Cornouaille in Quimper. Several towns also organise historical re-enactments and events celebrating local traditions, such as the Filets Bleus in Concarneau which celebrates fishing. Brittany also has some film festivals like the Three Continents Festival in Nantes. The Utopiales international science fiction festival is held in the same city.
Brest and Douarnenez both organise large tall ship meetings. Football , cycling and sailing are the three most popular sports in Brittany. Professional footballers coming from the region also form the Brittany national football team which sometimes plays with national teams.
Several Bretons have won the Tour de France: Sailing is particularly important for sea-resorts like La Trinité-sur-Mer , Pornichet , Concarneau , Lorient and the îles de Glénan , where a prestigious school is located.
A great number of Bretons have become acclaimed sailors, such as: S Finances ethiques Voyager responsable Soutenir l'édition solidaire Economiser les ressources Sensibiliser au développement Solidaire ici Agir à l'international Pourquoi, comment?
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Actus à la une. Les solidarités face aux flux migratoires: Statistiques relatives aux différentes formes de volontariat Le Ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires Etrangères vient de publier une brochure sur les statistiques sur les différentes
Imsges: site de rencontres pour bretons
Webarchive template wayback links Articles with French-language external links EngvarB from October Use dmy dates from October Pages using infobox settlement with unknown parameters Articles containing French-language text Articles with hAudio microformats Articles containing Breton-language text All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from February All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October Articles with Curlie links Coordinates on Wikidata Wikipedia articles with BNF identifiers. The foreign policy of the duchy changed many times; the dukes were usually independent but they often contracted alliances with England or France. Vous n'avez pas pu assister à la formation Futsal Base - Découverte organisée par votre District ou aucune session n'était programmée?
Profitez d'une offre tarifaire pour cette occasion From the 15th to the 18th century, Brittany reached an economic golden age.
Ermine had been used in Brittany long before, and there is no clue about its origin. Since then, the region of Brittany has had its own council and administrative bodies. Cette section est vide, insuffisamment détaillée ou incomplète. Vannes, on its side, was the site de rencontres pour bretons of the Chamber of Accounts and of mauvaises rencontres traduction espagnol Parliament until the union with France. It is stronger among employees than employers. The Breton motorways are not toll roadscontrarily to the usual French highways.
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